is a process by which water is treated to remove unwanted contaminants. There are many different processes available and each one has its own advantages and disadvantages.
Reverse Osmosis (RO)
RO uses a semi-permeable membrane to filter out sediments, dissolved solids and harmful contaminants. It is usually used in conjunction with other filtration technologies such as an activated carbon filter to produce highly pure drinking water free from unpleasant tastes and odors.
Ion-exchange filters: These water filtration devices use an ion-exchange process to remove chlorine, chloramines, heavy metals, cysts, and other toxic elements. They also reduce iron and manganese to make the water safe for drinking and cooking.
The process of distilling involves boiling water to vaporise the dissolved substances, then passing it through a hydrophobic polymer membrane to condense the liquid into a clear, purified stream. This process is the most widely used method for water purification.
Bank filtration: This type of contaminant filtration is used for river and canal water that is taken from the banks of a river or a dam where the water naturally contains bacteria, algae, suspended solids, dissolved organic matter, and other soluble constituents. The contaminant levels in these water sources are usually lower than that found in surface water, though there will still be some bacterial and protozoan activity present.